Nuh district is one of the 22 districts in the Indian state of Haryana. It has an area of 1,507 square kilometres (582sq mi) and 10.9 million population. It is bounded by Gurgaon district on the north, Rewari district on the west and Faridabad and Palwal districts on the east. It is predominantly populated by the Meos, who are agriculturalists, and Muslims.
Mewat region geographically coordinates on Latitude 27°54’05”North and Longitude 77°10’50”East, is a hilly region, comprising the portions of ancient Matsya-desh and Surasena or modern southern part of Haryana and north-eastern Rajasthan. Mewat is historically very important region lies in the south of Delhi, takes its name from its inhabitants, the Meos. In the ancient period, its boundaries were roughly described, running irregularly from Deeg in Bharatpur, Alwar itself and Dholpur in Rajasthan, Rewari, Palwal and Gurgaon in Haryana and also include parts of the districts of Mathura in Uttar Pradesh. Mewat possesses several hill ranges of Aravali Mountain. It was for many centuries famous for the predatory character of its inhabitants, who at all times gave great trouble to the Turk, Pathan, Mughal and British rulers at Delhi. In Mughal times, Mewat formed a part of the Subah of Delhi and Agra. Its most famous towns were Narnaul, Kotila, Indore, Alwar, Tijara, and Rewari. Mewat region in modern times generally comprising a very small portion in comparison of ancient and medieval one, starts from north of Sohna in Gurgaon district, in the south the Deeg and Kama in Bharatpur and Alwar districts, in east the Tijara and Tapokra, in west the Punhana in Nuh district and Hodal in Palwal district. The average elevation of Mewat(Nuh) area above the surrounding alluvial plain is 500 feet. The summit of the plateau consists of a barren expanse covered with masses of coarse sandstone, almost entirely unrelieved by verdure. The whole range may be regarded as the boundary between the elevated Rajputana desert and the low-lying valley of the Jumna, rather than as a separate hill system. The Aravali Hills falling Mewat area popularly known as Kala Pahar has a special significance in Mewat.
According to the 2011 census, Nuh district had a population of 1,089,406, roughly equal to the nation of Cyprus or the US state of Rhode Island. This gives it a ranking of 420th in India (out of a total of 640). The district had a population density of 729 inhabitants per square kilometre (1507/sq km). Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 37.94% It has a sex ratio of 906 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 56.1%. According to the Census of India 2001, the total population of the district was 993,617 (including Hathin Block of district Palwal) of which 46,122 (4.64%) lived in urban areas and the major chunk 947,495 (95.36%) of the population lived in rural areas. Out of the total population of 993,617, there are 524,872 males and 468,745 females. The SC population is around 78,802. The total numbers of households are 142,822 out of which 135,253 (95%) are in rural areas and remaining 7,569 (5%) are in urban areas. The total number of BPL households are 53,125 including Hathin Block.
The main occupation in the district is agriculture along with allied and agro-based activities. The Meos are the predominant population group and are all agriculturists. Agriculture is mostly rain-fed except in small pockets where canal irrigation is available. Agriculture production measured in terms of crop yield per hectare is low in comparison to the other districts of the State. Animal husbandry, particularly dairy, is the secondary source of income for the people and those who live closer to the hilly ranges of Aravali also keep sheep and goats. Milk yields are not so low, however, due to heavy indebtedness, most of the farmers are forced to sell the milk to the lenders at lower than normal price, which drastically reduces their income from the milk. Towns like Punhana, Pinangwan, Ferozepur Jhirka, Taoru and Nuh are major hub of retail shops and acts as the backbone of day to day life in area. The district also has an MMTC-PAMP factory located in the Rojka-Meo industrial estate.
The district falls under the Sub-Tropical, Semi-arid climatic zone with extremely hot temperature in summer. Dryness of air is a standard feature in Nuh district except during the monsoon season. May and June are the hottest months of the year with the temperature ranging from 30C to 48C. January, on the other hand, is the coldest month with temperature ranging between 2 °C to 25 °C. Strong dusty winds are conspicuous during summer.
- Rainfall: The annual rainfall varies considerably from year to year. The maximum rainfall is experienced during the monsoon season, which reaches its peak in the month of July. The principal precipitation occurs during monsoon period from June to September when about 80% of the rainfall is received. The average rainfall varies from 336 mm to 440 mm in the district.
- Humidity: Humidity is considerably low during the greater part of the year. The Nuh district experiences high humidity only during the monsoon period. The period of minimum humidity (less than 20%) is between April and May.
- Wind: During the monsoon, the sky is heavily clouded, and winds are strong during this period. Winds are generally light during the post-monsoon and winter months.
- Region Specific Weather Phenomena: Nuh district experiences a high incidence of thunderstorms and dust storms, often accompanied by violent squalls (andhar) during the period April to June. Sometimes the thunderstorms are accompanied by heavy rain and occasionally by hailstorms. In the winter months, fog sometimes appears in the district.